Working With Multilingual Writers

A. About This Handbook

This handbook has been designed to assist ESL tutors at Berea College. It is a compilation of many sections by multiple authors. Try to read through all of the articles before you begin tutoring, with the exception of the miscellaneous articles, which you can examine if your situation warrants it. Thoughts or questions about the handbook or ESL learning are welcome at the Center for Teaching and Learning. If you have an experience which you would like to contribute to the handbook, contact Jennifer Marciniak at jennifer_marciniak@berea.edu.

B. Identity of ESL Learners: Who are we teaching? ~ By Mercy Kershner

While it is natural to want to generalize about our students, when it comes to ESL learners, it can be misleading to do so. ESL students are not categorically different from native students, nor are they categorically alike to other ESL students (Hjortshoj, 2001). According to author Joy Reid, the background of ESL students varies widely “in terms of language and cultural backgrounds, prior education, gender, age, and ESL language proficiency” (Matsuda, 1999). In other words, a Syrian refugee who has had her education interrupted multiple times will have different linguistic struggles than an international student from Thailand. A student familiar with African logic will have a different understanding of how to write a paper than a student familiar with Latin American logic. Variations in gender and culture may greatly affect interactions between student and tutor.

Some students may have not even learned how to read and write in their native language, much less in English. Their schooling may have been halted by poverty, war, or inaccessibility (Felix-Lund, 2013). Others may have been learning English for several years during their formal education. Even an immigrant who has been an American citizen for an extended period of time may not have mastered the English language enough to be confident in his skills (Chiang and Schmida, 2006). Moreover, a learner who has had ten years of schooling in Bangladesh has been exposed to a different sort of rhetoric and school equipment than a learner with ten years of schooling from South Africa. Critical thinking and analysis are western approaches to education, while other cultures emphasize memorization (Felix-Lund, 2013).

Under such circumstances, we as teachers must be careful not to make assumptions about the experiences and capabilities of our students. If we are confused or curious about something, we can either research the topic on our own or ask the student herself. This will pave the way to mutual understanding between tutor and tutee.

C. The Four Sides of Language Learning: Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening ~ by Amanda Joy and Mercy Kershner

This may come across as obvious, but it is important to address the four sides of language learning – reading, writing, listening and speaking. It is easy as a tutor to focus only on writing, because it is students’ writing skills that determine grades. In order to have a balanced approach to language, and to help improve learning skills as a whole, it is important to focus on all four of the necessary skills.

If a student has low reading comprehension, they will be unable to incorporate research effectively into their essays. A slow reading speed can be a real struggle when it comes to time management and getting assignments submitted on time. If a student has trouble understanding the professor, they will struggle to understand assignments and classroom requirements. Having difficulty in speaking and listening skills can significantly limit a students’ classroom participation and can even play into feelings of isolation and loneliness that a student might experience.

As you will see, this handbook is broken down according to these four aspects of language. Each section has background information on that particular skill and 2-3 activities to go with it. These activities can be copied exactly or modified according to your needs.

Bibliography

Chiang, Yuet-Sim D., and Mary Schmida. “Language Identity and Language Ownership: Linguistic Conflicts of First-Year University Writing Students.” Second-Language Writing in the Composition Classroom. Eds. Paul Kei Matsuda, Michelle Cox, Jay Jordan, Christina Ortmeier-Hooper. Boston: Bedford / St. Martin’s, 2006. 89-102. Print.

Felix-Lund, Margi. (2013). A Handbook for Tutors Working with Adult ESOL Literacy.      Portland: Portland State University.

Hjortshoj, Keith. (2001). Transition to College Writing. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s,       2001.

Matsuda, Paul Kei. (1999). Composition Studies and ESL Writing: A Disciplinary Division of Labor. College Composition and Communication, Vol. 50, 699-721. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/358488

A. Background

Depending on the background of your student, listening could be her best or worst skill. If she is an international student, it is likely that she has not had as much experience listening to English as she has had formal in-class training. Often international students have had little experience with a native English speaker. In a classroom context, students normally learn via their “eyes” in that they are tend to be given readings and worksheets, rather than honing conversational skills. If she is an immigrant who has lived in the United States for a few years, listening is probably her most developed skill. Refugees especially are usually “ear learners”, in that they are familiar with slang and conversational skills but lack reading and writing skills, often because they were not literate in their native language. This is because frequently their educations were interrupted by war or living in various locations after fleeing their native country (Reid). While all four aspects of language learning (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) are important, people master a language through speech first, while writing is a secondary expression of language (Matsuda, 709). Just as small children develop language skills, in a foreign language one usually masters listening before speaking, and certainly before reading and writing.

The issue with listening versus reading is that the language cannot be re-read, as in a book. Processing a dialogue in person is much more fast-paced than reading content. First of all, a student must be comfortable enough with you that he will ask for clarification and not simply nod his head if he does not understand. Make it clear to him that he is always welcome to ask questions and do not get irritated if he cannot keep up orally. The dialogue below was inspired by BBC World Service:

Tutor: You need to go to Lincoln Hall.
Student: Excuse me?
Tutor: Academic Services is in Lincoln Hall.
Student: What is Academic Services?
Tutor: The office that deals with Extension of Terms.
Student: They can help me with my Extension of Terms?
Tutor: Yes.
Student: Okay.

“I don’t understand” and “Excuse me” are obvious phrases to indicate confusion in conversation, but also repeating back the phrase or a specific portion can help. If necessary, write down an unclear phrase, but only do that as a last resort. Encourage your student to gain listening skills whenever and wherever possible. Sitting in a café and overhearing others’ conversations is a low-pressure but real-world experience. The radio, TV, and the internet all provide various avenues for listening practice. It is best if they interact with a topic in which they are engaged so that they will be more likely to practice active listening. Subtitles in their native language and later in English will greatly assist intermediate learners. Topics too dense will frustrate them more, but specific songs or films may be too familiar to truly improve their listening skills (BBC).

B. Practical Application

I. Activity 1: Dictation

Dictations are an excellent way to improve both listening and writing skills. An easy exercise to provide consistency for the student is a weekly dictation working on a certain set of sounds. For example, one week your focus could be “ou” and “ow” vowel sounds. Go over the different spellings and various words in each category together, preferably with visuals. Read off a few sentences to the student. Have her repeat them back to you and then write them down, one by one. Circle misspellings or other grammatical mistakes without saying outright what the issue is, so as to encourage the student to figure out her error on her own. You could have a few sentences as follows:

a. The cow’s milk was so sour that the mouse cried aloud.

b. The proud owl crouched amongst the other fowl.

c. I’m going to town right now to buy a new blouse.

d. The hound sat on the ground in the middle of the crowd.

II. Activity 2: Song

Below is an excellent example of a listening activity, but it is easy to make your own or search for hundreds of other options on the internet. Have your student listen to a song and fill in the blanks. For a very new English learner, a simple song like “Mary Had A Little Lamb” would be more accessible. For an intermediate learner, Adele’s song “Someone Like You” below is a good option, since it is well-known and also somewhat repetitive. For an advanced student, choose a song that is unlikely to be known to him and also has less repetition. The handout below gives a good representation of the many options you can explore within one song, including simple past tense and an exploration of idiomatic phrases. Have the student fill out the worksheet while listening to the song. Depending on the level of the student, you may need to replay the song multiple times.

Picture1

Video for Adele’s “Someone Like You”

Worksheet for this song

More ESL song worksheets

3 points to take away:

– Determine whether your student is an “ear learner” or an “eye learner”

– Encourage your student (or even give homework!) to listen in various every-day contexts

Be patient if you have to repeat a phrase several times

Bibliography

Barbosa, Thais. (2011). Song: Someone Like You. Retrieved from https://en.islcollective.com/resources/printables/worksheets_doc_docx/song_someone_like_you_-_adele/past-simple-/8393

 

Learning English: How Can Listening Skills Be Improved? Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/grammar/learnit/learnitv39.shtml

Matsuda, Paul Kei. (1999). Composition Studies and ESL Writing: A Disciplinary Division of Labor. College Composition and Communication, Vol. 50, 699-721. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/358488

Reid, Joy. “‘Eye’ Learners and ‘Ear’ Learners: Identifying the Language Needs of International Student and U.S. Resident Writers.” Second-Language Writing in the Composition Classroom. Eds. Paul Kei Matsuda, Michelle Cox, Jay Jordan, Christina Ortmeier-Hooper. Boston: Bedford / St. Martin’s, 2006. 76-88. Print.

C. Background

There are many presumptions associated with ESL writing. Often it is assumed that if a person can speak well, she can write well, and vice-versa. However, sometimes people who can carry on a full-fledged conversation struggle with writing, and those who have severely limited oral skills may be proficient writers. The former is especially true of “Generation 1.5 writers”, who have lived in an English-speaking society for several years and thus learned English mostly through spoken interactions. International students often learned via worksheets in their native countries and were not required to write entire compositions (Matsuda and Cox, 2004).

Another presumption lies in believing that there is only one manner of writing, while in reality our differing cultures are evident in our writing, and no culture is better than another. Don’t become obsessed with “correcting” differences in your student’s writing. While there are naturally grammatical issues that need to be changed for clarity, just because something is different does not make it wrong. Ilona Leki states in Understanding ESL Writers: “ESL students … may never become indistinguishable from a native speaker, and it is unclear why they should” (Matsuda and Cox, 2004).

If you are asked to look over a paper for student, focus on the global issues (those that influence comprehension of meaning, such as word order, verb tenses, and wrong word choice) rather than the local issues (those that do not directly affected meaning, such as comma splices, articles, and spelling) (Matsuda and Cox, 2004). Avoid rewording the work of an ESL writer so much that she loses her voice. You should think of yourself more as collaborator and a coach, rather than an editor and an evaluator (Matsuda and Cox, 2004). If you focus too much on small grammatical errors, your student will feel more pressured to plagiarize to get the wording “just right” (Currie, 2006).

When you need to make suggestions about a student’s writing, research has shown that indirect feedback is more effective than direct feedback. Indirect feedback is indicating that there is an error but not pinpointing exactly what it is (as in direct feedback), so as to encourage the student to fix the mistake himself (Ferris and Roberts, 2006). For instance, in the sentence “Johnny eats the pie last night”, you can write “verb tense” (indirect feedback), rather than changing “eats” to “ate” for the student (direct feedback).

Below are some activities you can use with your student to help them home self-editing skills. The goal is to assist them in identifying those small mistakes on their won.

D. Practical Application

III. Activity 1: Finishing Sentences

Below are some examples of sentences to get your student writing. This is a good activity for beginners. Of course, you can also have lead-in questions instead to make it more challenging (e.g. What is your family like?).

a. My name is …

b. I am from …

c. I live in …

d. I’m ____ years old.

e. I am tall/short/average height.

f. I have (length), (color)

g. My eyes are …

h. I have ________ brothers and ________ sisters.

i. My favorite color is …

j. I like to …

k. I don’t like …

IV. Activity 2: Fixing Sentences

a. Below is a word bank with locations/events. This can be expanded or adjusted for almost any theme (food items, family members, etc.). Have your student fill in the blanks with the appropriate words. This will assist them in learning new vocabulary and applying it to every-day writing.

Word bank: park, café, concert, grocery store, concert

  1. Jacque listened to his favorite band at the ________.
  2. Bobby went to the ______ to check out a textbook.
  3. Sarah is going to the ______ to buy a coffee.
  4. Maria walked to the _______ to play on the playground.
  5. Ludwig drove to the _________ to get milk.

b. Below is a paragraph with incorrect prepositions. Have the student find the mistakes and replace them with correct prepositions. This will help them recognize correct word choices.

In Saturday I went to visit my grandmother who lives with Berlin. My father drove me through the airport and I got on the plane for 7 o’clock. We arrived through Berlin two hours later, and my grandmother was there to meet me. We got under a train and travelled by her house. Later I looked after some old photos my grandmother showed me and watched a film without the TV. I fell asleep above the sofa, and when I woke down my grandmother had already gone in bed.

Answers:

On Saturday I went to visit my grandmother who lives in Berlin. My father drove me to the airport and I got on the plane at 7 o’clock. We arrived in Berlin two hours later, and my grandmother was there to meet me. We got on a train and travelled to her house. Later I looked at some old photos my grandmother showed me and watched a film on the TV. I fell asleep on the sofa, and when I woke up my grandmother had already gone to bed.

If the student is missing a mistake in the sentence, have her read the paragraph aloud or read it aloud to her.

Both activities were inspired by exercises on this site. Here is another website that is excellent for writing activities.

3 points to take away:

– Focus on global errors over local errors

– Don’t correct so much that the writing does not reflect the student’s voice

– Give indirect rather than direct feedback

Bibliography

Currie, Pat. “Staying Out of Trouble: Apparent Plagiarism and Academic Survival.” Second-Language Writing in the Composition Classroom. Eds. Paul Kei Matsuda, Michelle Cox, Jay Jordan, Christina Ortmeier-Hooper. Boston: Bedford / St. Martin’s, 2006. 364-379. Print.

Ferris, Dana, and Barrie Roberts. “Error Feedback in L2 Writing Classes: How Explicit Does It Need to Be?” Second-Language Writing in the Composition Classroom. Eds. Paul Kei Matsuda, Michelle Cox, Jay Jordan, Christina Ortmeier-Hooper. Boston: Bedford / St. Martin’s, 2006. 380-402. Print.

Matsuda, Paul Kei, and Michelle Cox. “Reading an ESL Writer’s Text.” ESL Writers: A Guide for Writing Center Tutors. Eds. Bruce, S., & Rafoth, B. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 2004. 39-47. Print.

Reid, Joy. “‘Eye’ Learners and ‘Ear’ Learners: Identifying the Language Needs of International Student and U.S. Resident Writers.” Second-Language Writing in the Composition Classroom. Eds. Paul Kei Matsuda, Michelle Cox, Jay Jordan, Christina Ortmeier-Hooper. Boston: Bedford / St. Martin’s, 2006. 76-88. Print.

E. Background

Imagine you have woken up in St. Petersburg with no knowledge of Russian and a throat so sore you cannot speak. You are hungry and try to find your way to the nearest grocery store. You cannot read road signs or maps. You also cannot read the newspaper, which would have informed you that there is a strike shutting down all bus lines. You finally come upon a store just by walking around, but you cannot read the labels to anything you are buying, which is a problem, since you are gluten intolerant. You fall sick because you end up buying something with gluten, but when you go to the doctor, you cannot read any of the paperwork. You are experiencing a nightmare!

All this is to say, reading may not be viewed as valued a skill as oral skills in a new language, but it is a vital skill to have if you are to succeed in society. However, reading can be especially challenging for certain ESL students. This is often true of immigrants from third-world countries, who may have only advanced to third or fourth grade in their native country. It is even truer of refugees, who often had to move from place to place and thus constantly had their education interrupted or at times halted. Thus, if they never learned how to read well in their native language, it will be a struggle in their second language (Reid, 2006).

While reading texts for school, one of the gravest mistakes of readers is skipping over unfamiliar words or colloquialisms. Thus, you should purposely assign activities that will force your student to look up definitions. It may require you to show him texts of various levels before you can determine his reading comprehension, but it is important to make the readings challenging enough that you expand him to expand his horizon as a reader. Have her take a notepad with her everywhere she goes, in which she can jot down large words or strange idioms that she does not understand, and then discuss them in class. Below are some activities to encourage active reading.

F. Practical Application

V. Activity 1: Poem Exercise

The famous poem “Stopping by the Woods on a Snowy Evening” by Robert Frost allows for thoughtful reflection while not obstructing comprehension with too many tough words. One of the first aspects of the poem is its rhyme. Have your student take different colored markers and indicate the words that rhyme with each other. Highlight some of the more difficult words, such as “harness,” “queer,” and “downy.” Allow the student to analyze and interpret the poem. Making a personal connection to the poem will assist them in memorizing the new vocabulary. Have your student write a reader’s response answering the following questions:

  • How do you feel when it snows?
  • What did you like about the poem?
  • What part of the poem did you not understand?
  • Do you think the ending was positive or negative?
  • Why do you think the horse stops in the woods?

Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening

By: Robert Frost

Whose woods these are I think I know.

His house is in the village though;

He will not see me stopping here

To watch his woods fill up with snow.

My little horse must think it queer

To stop without a farmhouse near

Between the woods and frozen lake

The darkest evening of the year.

He gives his harness bells a shake

To ask if there is some mistake.

The only other sound’s the sweep

Of easy wind and downy flake.

The woods are lovely, dark and deep,

But I have promises to keep,

And miles to go before I sleep,

And miles to go before I sleep.

The activity above was adapted from this lesson planning website. The Robert Frost’s work and hundreds of other poems can be found at this poetry website.

VI. Activity 2: Reading Comprehension

Below is a reading excerpt for a student with a fifth grade reading level, along with a few activities to go along with it. These ensure close reading and can help you determine how much the student understood of the text. The complete pdf document for this activity can be found here. Dozens of similar worksheets can be found on this website and range from first grade to fifth grade reading levels.

A

B

C

D

E

research-paper-proposal-jpfuksu2

f

g

h

Bibliography

Dollinger, Harris. (2015). Snowy Evening Poetry for ESL. Retrieved from http://teachers.net/lessonplans/posts/3073.html

Frost, Robert. (1995). Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening. Retrieved from
https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems-and-poets/poems/detail/42891

Peterson, Sue. (2012). Alternative Energy Sources: Wind, Solar, Geothermal, and

            Hydroelectric Power. Retrieved from http://www.k5learning.com/sites/all/files/        worksheets/K5_RC_Gr5_LT2_SampleW.pdf

Reid, Joy. “‘Eye’ Learners and ‘Ear’ Learners: Identifying the Language Needs of International Student and U.S. Resident Writers.” Second-Language Writing in the Composition Classroom. Eds. Paul Kei Matsuda, Michelle Cox, Jay Jordan, Christina Ortmeier-Hooper. Boston: Bedford / St. Martin’s, 2006. 76-88. Print.

3 points to take away:

– Assign readings that are easy enough that your student can understand them but challenging enough that he will learn new words and phrases

– Encourage your student to look up definitions

– Be aware of the every-day aspect of reading and thus have your student take a notepad around with her

G. Background

The four aspects of language learning all overlap to a certain extent. Speaking and listening in particular overlap so often that most ESL textbooks group them together. This is because, in order to become a good English speaker, you must first be a good listener.

As a tutor, keep in mind that your student will probably never sound like a native speaker. You can’t pick up the cello as an adult and expect to play like Yo-Yo Ma. Let your student know that sounding like a native speaker or getting rid of one’s accent is not the goal of practicing one’s speaking skills – the goal is primarily to be understood. Instead of trying to spout out a complicated vocabulary, it is best in the early stages to go by the acronym K.I.S.S. – keep it short and simple (“How to improve your spoken English”).

Online dictionaries have pronunciation keys, and your student can watch English films to assist her – but the only way her spoken language will improve is if she puts those listening skills into action and talks! The main issue is fear and embarrassment. Make sure your student knows you will not laugh at him if he mispronounces a phrase or uses the incorrect word during tutoring sessions. Beyond class, encourage your student to find a friend who needs to practice English as well. Another excellent way to practice spoken English is to learn some American songs (“How to improve your spoken English”). Reading aloud is helpful as well, whether to oneself or to another person. Lastly, if the student can record himself, that can aid in improving tone of voice and pronunciation (Rani, 2010).

Dr. D Sudha Rani emphasizes that the tutor should ask the student how she wants to be corrected while speaking – right in the moment or afterward. Usually it is recommended that correction is noted at the moment but explained later, so as not to interrupt the flow of thought. Below are two activities to enhance speaking skills.

H. Practical Application

VII. Activity 1: Dialogues

Casual, unplanned conversation with your student is necessary and also a useful tool in spoken English. However, especially when trying to teach new vocabulary, a good method is writing out dialogues beforehand. Have the student perform role A and you perform role B, and then reverse. Here is an example of a dialogue to teach your student about ordering at a restaurant.

Waiter: Will anyone else be joining you, sir?

Client: No, it’s just me.

Waiter: Follow me this way please.

Client: Thank you.

Waiter: Can I get you anything to drink?

Client: Yes, I will have a coffee with cream and sugar.

Waiter: I’ll be right out with it. [Later] Do you know what you’d like to order, sir?

Client: Yes, I’ll have the steak, medium-rare.

Waiter: Of course, sir.

Client: Thank you.

Waiter: No problem.

As you can see, these dialogues are normally short and not too complicated. You can make this example more complex by having the student change the underlined words. For example, she could ask for an iced tea and a chicken pot pie instead, and the waiter could say, “You’re welcome” at the end instead.

VIII. Activity 2: Speech

Public speaking causes many people anxiety, and public speaking in your second language is an especially daunting prospect. However, this is an important skill for your student to hone. It is best to have them practice speech-giving first in the safe environment of a tutoring session.

 

For instance, have the student write a one paragraph speech about a holiday tradition in her native country. During the speech, allow her to have notecards, but they should not be written word-for-word; this will help her to reword the same idea in multiple ways. After the speech, go over phrases that were particularly unclear, but be sure to also compliment what she did correctly.

Sources:

– How to improve your spoken English. (1999). Retrieved November 10, 2015, from             http://www.learnenglish.de/improveenglish/improvespeakingpage.html.

– Rani, D. (2010). Advanced Communication Skills Laboratory Manual. Delhi: Pearson.

3 points to take away:

– Good speakers are good listeners

– Good speakers overcome their fear and actually practice talking!

– Your goal is to make your student understandable, not a native speaker

IX. Conclusion

A.   Thank you for reading Berea College’s ESL Handbook. We hope the articles have been enlightening and will assist you in your tutoring responsibilities. Contact us at the Writing Resource Center at 859-985-3404 with any questions or concerns!

A special thanks goes to the authors of this handbook, Mercy Kershner and Amanda Joy, and to the staff editor and coordinator of Writing Resources, Professor Jennifer Marciniak. Also, thank you to the many educators who have expanded the field of ESL in recent years and to the students whose dedication to learning English has broadened our world views and inspired global interconnection.

B.    Berea College Plagiarism Policy

Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines plagiarism as “the act of using another person’s words or ideas without giving credit to that person.” More details concerning what constitutes plagiarism can be found on the Hutchins Library website.

 

The Berea College policy for Academic Dishonesty, which includes but is not limited to plagiarism, is discussed at length in the Berea Catalog. The faculty member suspecting academic dishonesty can fail a student in her course. A faculty member with proof of dishonesty must reject the work in question and report the student to the Director of Academic Services. If a student has multiple offenses, he may be suspended from the college.

C.    Services on Campus

At Berea College, the Center for Teaching and Learning offers services via the Writing Resource Center, which provides students with workshops about how to improve their writing skills. Students can also sign up for individual consultations.

D.    Helpful Resources

Below are some helpful websites with ideas and worksheets you can use with your ESL student.

Learn English. Feel Good.

Dave’s ESL Café

Interesting Things for ESL Students

Oxford Seminars

– Using English (Teachers)

E.   Bibliography

Barbosa, Thais. (2011). Song: Someone Like You. Retrieved from https://en.islcollective.com/resources/printables/worksheets_doc_docx/song_someone_like_you_-_adele/past-simple-/8393

Chiang, Yuet-Sim D., and Mary Schmida. “Language Identity and Language Ownership: Linguistic Conflicts of First-Year University Writing Students.” Second-Language Writing in the Composition Classroom. Eds. Paul Kei Matsuda, Michelle Cox, Jay Jordan, Christina Ortmeier-Hooper. Boston: Bedford / St. Martin’s, 2006. 89-102. Print.

Currie, Pat. “Staying Out of Trouble: Apparent Plagiarism and Academic Survival.” Second-Language Writing in the Composition Classroom. Eds. Paul Kei Matsuda, Michelle Cox, Jay Jordan, Christina Ortmeier-Hooper. Boston: Bedford / St. Martin’s, 2006. 364-379. Print.

Dollinger, Harris. (2015). Snowy Evening Poetry for ESL. Retrieved from http://teachers.net/lessonplans/posts/3073.html

Felix-Lund, Margi. (2013). A Handbook for Tutors Working with Adult ESOL Literacy.     Portland: Portland State University.

Ferris, Dana, and Barrie Roberts. “Error Feedback in L2 Writing Classes: How Explicit Does It Need to Be?” Second-Language Writing in the Composition Classroom. Eds. Paul Kei Matsuda, Michelle Cox, Jay Jordan, Christina Ortmeier-Hooper. Boston: Bedford / St. Martin’s, 2006. 380-402. Print.

Frost, Robert. (1995). Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening. Retrieved from http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/171621

Hjortshoj, Keith. (2001). Transition to College Writing. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s,2001.

How to improve your spoken English. (1999). Retrieved November 10, 2015, from             http://www.learnenglish.de/improveenglish/improvespeakingpage.html.  Hydroelectric Power. Retrieved fromhttp://www.k5learning.com/sites/all/files/        worksheets/K5_RC_Gr5_LT2_SampleW.pdf

Learning English: How Can Listening Skills Be Improved? Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/grammar/learnit/learnitv39.shtml

Matsuda, Paul Kei, and Michelle Cox. “Reading an ESL Writer’s Text.” ESL Writers: A Guide for Writing Center Tutors. Eds. Bruce, S., & Rafoth, B. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 2004. 39-47. Print.

Matsuda, Paul Kei. (1999). Composition Studies and ESL Writing: A Disciplinary Division of Labor. College Composition and Communication, Vol. 50, 699-721. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/358488

Peterson, Sue. (2012). Alternative Energy Sources: Wind, Solar, Geothermal, and

Plagiarism. (n.d.). Retrieved December 10, 2015, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/plagiarism

Rani, D. (2010). Advanced Communication Skills Laboratory Manual. Delhi: Pearson.

Reid, Joy. “‘Eye’ Learners and ‘Ear’ Learners: Identifying the Language Needs of International Student and U.S. Resident Writers.” Second-Language Writing in the Composition Classroom. Eds. Paul Kei Matsuda, Michelle Cox, Jay Jordan, Christina Ortmeier-Hooper. Boston: Bedford / St. Martin’s, 2006. 76-88. Print.

Reid, Joy. “‘Eye’ Learners and ‘Ear’ Learners: Identifying the Language Needs of International Student and U.S. Resident Writers.” Second-Language Writing in the Composition Classroom. Eds. Paul Kei Matsuda, Michelle Cox, Jay Jordan, Christina Ortmeier-Hooper. Boston: Bedford / St. Martin’s, 2006. 76-88. Print.